Notes

1—Personal communication with S Cooper, information specialist, NABCO, 2001.

2—Roses, DF editor, Breast Cancer, Churchill-Livingstone, 1999 p. 511.

3—Love, SM. Dr. Susan Love's Breast Book, Perseus Books, 2000, p. 561.

4—Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, Mariotto A, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Edwards BK (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2000, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2000, 2003.

5—Mayer, M. Advanced Breast Cancer: A Guide to Living with Metastatic Disease O'Reilly, 1998, Ch 1.

6—Shavers VL, Harlan LC, Stevens JL. Racial/ethnic variation in clinical presentation, treatment, and survival among breast cancer patients under age 35. Cancer. 2003 Jan 1;97(1):134-47.

7—Roses, DF, editor, Op. Cit.

8—Statistics calculated using Adjuvant! http://www.adjuvantonline.com/ Peter M. Ravdin, et al Computer Program to Assist in Making Decisions About Adjuvant Therapy for Women With Early Breast Cancer Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol 19, Issue 4 (February), 2001: 980-991.

9—Abner AL, Recht A, Eberlein T, et al.: Prognosis following salvage mastectomy for recurrence in the breast after conservative surgery and radiation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 11 (1): 44-8, 1993 and Haffty BG, Fischer D, Beinfield M, et al.: Prognosis following local recurrence in the conservatively treated breast cancer patient. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21 (2): 293-8, 1991.

10—Breast Cancer (PDQ): Treatment, Health Professional NCI website at www.cancer.org.

11—Harris EE, Schultz D, et al.Ten-year outcome after combined modality therapy for inflammatory breast cancer Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003 Apr 1;55(5):1200-8.

12—Ueno NT, Buzdar AU, Singletary SE, et al.: Combined-modality treatment of inflammatory breast carcinoma: twenty years of experience at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 40 (4): 321-9, 1997.

13—Giordano SH, Buzdar AU, Kau SC, Hortobagyi GN, Improvement in breast cancer survival: results from M. D. Anderson Cancer Center protocols from 1975-2000 Presented at ASCO, 2002 Abstract No: 212.

14—Cancer Facts and Figures, 2003 American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org.

15—Campleman, SL, Curtis, RL. Demographic Aspects of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in California, 1988-1999. Cancer Registry of Northern California, Public Health Institute, Chico, CA. Unpublished draft.

16—The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) The AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 6th Edition can be found at http://www.cancerstaging.org/.

17—Five Year Survival Rates for Breast Cancer Cases Diagnosed in 1994-94, NCDB, Commission on Cancer, AcoS, Survival Reports, v. 1.3, September 18, 2003.

18—Ibid.

19—Mills, PK, Jain, R. Stage at Diagnosis of Female Breast Cancer in California, 1988-99. Cancer Registry of Central California, Unpublished draft.

20—California Cancer Registry, file aug28RSRbreast.xls.

21—Nasseri, K. Trends in Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in California. Tri-Counties Regional Cancer Registry, Public Health Institute, Santa Barbara, CA. Unpublished draft.

22—Kolata G, CONFRONTING CANCER; Breast Cancer: Mammography Finds More Tumors. Then the Debate Begins. The New York Times April 9, 2002.

23—Li CI, Malone KE, Daling JR. Differences in breast cancer stage, treatment, and survival by race and ethnicity. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jan 13;163(1):49-56.

24—Reis LA, Eisner, et al. SEER CAncer Statistics Review, 1973-1999. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1973-1999/,2002.

25—Dignam JJ. Differences in breast cancer prognosis among African-American and Caucasian women. CA Cancer J Clin. 2000 Jan-Feb;50(1):50-64.

26—Clegg LX, Li FP, Hankey BF, et al. Cancer survival among US whites and minorities: a SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) Program population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Sep 23;162(17):1985-93.

27—Eley JW, Hill HA, Chen VW, Austin DF, Wesley MN, Muss HB, Greenberg RS, Coates RJ, Correa P, Redmond CK, et al. Racial differences in survival from breast cancer. Results of the National Cancer Institute Black/White Cancer Survival Study. JAMA. 1994 Sep 28;272(12):947-54.

28—Natarajan, N., Nemoto T. et al. Race-related differences in breast cancer patients: Results of a 1982 national survey of breast cancer by the American College of Surgeons. Cancer, 1985;56:1704-1709.

29—Hunter CP, Redmond CK, Chen VW, Austin DF, Greenberg RS, Correa P, Muss HB, Forman MR, Wesley MN, Blacklow RS, et al. Breast cancer: factors associated with stage at diagnosis in black and white women. Black/White Cancer Survival Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Jul 21;85(14):1129-37.

30—Menck HR, Mills PK The influence of urbanization, age, ethnicity, and income on the early diagnosis of breast carcinoma: opportunity for screening improvement. Cancer. 2001 Sep 1;92(5):1299-304.

31—Hunter CP, et al, Op Cit.

32—Joslyn SA, West MM. Racial differences in breast carcinoma survival.Cancer. 2000 Jan 1;88(1):114-23.

33—Simon MS, Severson RK. Racial differences in breast cancer survival: the interaction of socioeconomic status and tumor biology. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Jun;176(6):S233-9.

34—Henson, DE, Chi KC, Levine, PH. Histologic grade, stage, and Survival in Breast Carcinoma. Cancer. 2003 Sep 1;98(5):908-17.

35—Joslyn, Op Cit.

36—Rochman, S Race and the Cure, MAMM Magazine, September/October, 2003, 36.

37—Bach PB, Schrag D, Brawley OW, et al Survival of blacks and whites after a cancer diagnosis. JAMA. 2002 Apr 24;287(16):2106-13.

38—Rochman, S. Op Cit.

39—Muss HB. Factors used to select adjuvant therapy of breast cancer in the United States: an overview of age, race, and socioeconomic status. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2001;(30):52-5.

40—Babey, SH, Ponce, NA, et al. Cancer Screening in California: Racial and Ethnic Disparities Persist. A policy brief, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, 2003 www.healthpolicy.ucla.edu.

41—Hoegh, H, Davis, BD, Utilization of Screening Mammography in California, 1987-2000, Cancer Surveillance Section, Department of Health Services, Sacramento, and the Survey Research Group, Public Health Institute, Sacramento. Unpublished draft.

42—Malin JL, Schuster MA, Kahn KA, Brook RH.Quality of breast cancer care: what do we know? J Clin Oncol. 2002 Nov 1;20(21):4381-93.

43—Malin JL, Kahn KL, et al Validity of cancer registry data for measuring the quality of breast cancer care. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Jun 5;94(11):835-44.

44—Dignam, Op Cit.

45—Chu KC, Lamar CA, Freeman HP. Racial disparities in breast carcinoma survival rates: seperating factors that affect diagnosis from factors that affect treatment.Cancer. 2003 Jun 1;97(11):2853-60.

46—Lin SS, Clarke CA, et. a. Survival differences among Asian subpopulations in the United States after prostate, colorectal, breast, and cervical carcinomas. Cancer. 2002 Feb 15;94(4):1175-82.

47—Partridge AH, Wang PS, et al Nonadherence to Adjuvant Tamoxifen Therapy in Women with Primary Breast Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, February 15, 2003; 21.602-606.

48—Howard DL, Penchansky R, Brown MB. Disaggregating the effects of race on breast cancer survival. Fam Med. 1998 Mar;30(3):228-35.

49—Laws MB, Mayo SJ.The Latina Breast Cancer Control Study, year one: factors predicting screening mammography utilization by urban Latina women in Massachusetts. J Community Health. 1998 Aug; 23(4):251-67.

50—Mancino, AT, Rubio, IT, et al. Racial Differences in Breast Cancer Survival: The Effect of Residual Disease. J Surg Res. 2001 Oct;100(2):161-5.

51—Kahn, S. et al Does Local Therapy of the Intact Primary Tumor in Stage 4 Breast Cancer Affect Survival? 5th Annual Lynn Sage Breast Cancer Symposium, September, 2003. Abstract D7.

52—Ballard-Barbash R, Potosky AL, et. al. Factors associated with surgical and radiation therapy for early stage breast cancer in older women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Jun 5;88(11):716-26.

53—Joslyn SA. Op Cit.

54—Breen N, Wesley MN, Merrill RM, Johnson K. The relationship of socio-economic status and access to minimum expected therapy among female breast cancer patients in the National Cancer Institute Black-White Cancer Survival Study. Ethn Dis. 1999 Winter;9(1):111-25.

55—Shavers VL, Harlan LC, Op Cit.

56—O'Malley CD, Le GM, Glaser SL, Shema SJ, West DW. Socioeconomic status and breast carcinoma survival in four racial/ethnic groups: a population-based study.Cancer. 2003 Mar 1;97(5):1303-11.

57—Joslyn, S. Op Cit.

58—National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, Breast Cancer, v.2.2003 http://www.nccn.org/physician_gls/f_guidelines.html

59—Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer. NIH Consensus Statement Online 2000 November 1-3;17(4): 1-23. http://consensus.nih.gov/cons/114/114_statement.htm.

60—PDQ, Breast Cancer Treatment, Health Professionals version, http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/pdq/treatment/breast/healthprofessional.

61—PhRMA, 2003 Survey: Medicines in Development for Cancer http://www.phrma.org/newmedicines/resources/2003-05-12.109.pdf.

62—Chia, SK, The Impact of New Chemotherapeutic and Hormonal Agents on the Survival of Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC) in a Population Based Cohort ASCO, 2003 Abstract #22.

63—Ravdin PM, Siminoff LA, Davis GJ et al. Computer program to assist in making decisions about adjuvant therapy for women with early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):980-91.

64—Tejeda HA, Green SB, et. al.Representation of African-Americans, Hispanics, and whites in National Cancer Institute cancer treatment trials, J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Jun 19;88(12):812-6.

65—Kaluzny A, Brawley O, et. al, Assuring access to state-of-the-art care for U.S. minority populations: the first 2 years of the Minority-Based Community Clinical Oncology Program, J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Dec 1;85(23):1945-50.

66—Lara PN Jr, Higdon et. al. Prospective evaluation of cancer clinical trial accrual patterns: identifying potential barriers to enrollment. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Mar 15;19(6):1728-33.

67—Albrecht TL, Blanchard C, et. al. Strategic physician communication and oncology clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Oct;17(10):3324-32.